I think the advice I put in the book still applies. Perhaps it should even be updated, placing slightly greater emphasis on hepatic risk given the growing number of reports of issue or injury. Likewise, it is time we all stop considering trenbolone “just an injectable” where liver toxicity is concerned. True, it is not likely to cause serious liver issues. But then again, sometimes it still does. Trenbolone is a “middle area” drug … a good reminder that not all things can be placed on one side of a line. As is always good advice with steroids, stay informed and be cautious. Until next time.
12. Excretion – Excretion is the process by which metabolic wastes and other non-useful materials are eliminated from an organism. In vertebrates this is carried out by the lungs, kidneys. This is in contrast with secretion, where the substance may have specific tasks after leaving the cell, excretion is an essential process in all forms of life. For example, in urine is expelled through the urethra. In unicellular organisms, waste products are discharged directly through the surface of the cell, green plants produce carbon dioxide and water as respiratory products. In green plants, the carbon dioxide released during respiration gets utilized during photosynthesis, oxygen is a by product generated during photosynthesis, and exits through stomata, root cell walls, and other routes. Plants can get rid of water by transpiration and guttation. These latter processes do not need added energy, they act passively, however, during the pre-abscission phase, the metabolic levels of a leaf are high. Plants also excrete some waste substances into the soil around them, in animals, the main excretory products are carbon dioxide, ammonia, urea, uric acid, guanine and creatine. The liver and kidneys clear many substances from the blood, aquatic animals usually excrete ammonia directly into the external environment, as this compound has high solubility and there is ample water available for dilution. In terrestrial animals ammonia-like compounds are converted into other materials as there is less water in the environment. Birds excrete their nitrogenous wastes as uric acid in the form of a paste and this is metabolically more expensive, but allows more efficient water retention and it can be stored more easily in the egg. Many avian species, especially seabirds, can also excrete salt via specialized nasal salt glands, in insects, a system involving Malpighian tubules is utilized to excrete metabolic waste. Metabolic waste diffuses or is actively transported into the tubule, which transports the wastes to the intestines, the metabolic waste is then released from the body along with fecal matter. The excreted material may be called dejecta or ejecta, in pathology the word ejecta is more commonly used. UAlberta. ca, Animation of excretion Brian J Ford on leaf fall in Nature