Tribulus has been investigated for its benefits on BPN, although this study used a combination supplement of Tribulus Terrestris and Murraya koenigii .  Although only 12 weeks in length, the combination supplement was able to reduce IPSS symptoms from a score of 17 down to 9, which was not significantly different than the efficacy of 400mcg tamsulosin reducing IPSS symptoms from 14 to 8; the herbal combination reduced prostatic volume from to (% reduction) and was statistically significant while the % reduction seen with tamsulosin did not reach significance.  This study was criticized for its usage of generic tamsulosin (and thus no control for active amounts of tamsulosin) paired with a lack of placebo group. 
- Roots considered antiasthmatic and stimulant.
- Leaves considered anodyne.
- Fruit considered cooling, digestive, phlegmatic.
Parts used and preparation
Fruits, roots, leaves, .
Edibility / Nutritional
- Fruit is an excellent vegetable and popular in the rural day-to-day cuisine. It is eaten before it ripens, preferred before the seed hardens.
- Also used in native pickles and curries in India.
- A good source of vitamins A, B, and C.
- A good source of calcium, phosphorus, and iron; carbohydrates and fiber.
- Decoction of roots taken internally for asthma and as a general stimulant.
- Leaves are used for piles.
- The boiled root of the wild plant, mixed with sour milk and grain porridge, has been used for the treatment of syphilis.
- Decoction of roots, dried stalk, and leaves is used for washing sores, exudative surfaces and used as astringent for hemorrhage from the bladder and other hemorrhagic fluxes.
- The juice of leaves used for throat and stomach troubles.
- Juice of the fruit, sometimes with pounded leaves, rubbed on suspected syphilitic eruptions of the hands.
- Fruit considered cooling, and bruised with vinegar
- Chinese and Annamites used the roots for skin diseases.
- The fruit is considered cooling, and bruised with vinegar, is used as a poultice for abscesses and cracked nipples.
- In Taiwan folk medicine, roots are used for rheumatism, inflammation and foot pain.
- Long fruit is phlegmatic and generative of phthisis, coughs, and anorexia.
- The peduncle, incinerated, used in intestinal hemorrhages, piles, and toothache.
- Seeds used as stimulant but may cause dyspepsia and constipation
- In French Guinea, decoction or infusion of leaves is used for stomach troubles and sore throat.
- In India , juice of various plant parts and pulp of fruits of S. melongena and its wild allies used for various ailments: diabetes, otitis, toothaches, cholera, bronchitis, asthma, dysuria, among many others.
In global terms, animal feeds and forages contain a wide range of contaminants and toxins arising from anthropogenic and natural sources. In this article, the distribution of heavy metals, radionuclides, mycotoxins, plant toxins, antibiotics and microbial pathogens in cereals, complete feeds and forages is reviewed. The impacts on farm livestock productivity and on the safety of resulting edible products are also considered. Evidence is provided to demonstrate that feeds contain a variety of substances as co-contaminants and that there are regional differences in the nature of the compounds involved. It is concluded that the options for remedial action are limited. Furthermore, although many developing countries lack appropriate legislation, change in this respect is inevitable as regulatory controls for feeds imported into Europe and America are strengthened.