PLACENTAL TROPHOBLAST DEVELOPMENT AND VASCULARIZATION During human and nonhuman primate pregnancy, the placenta simultaneously accesses the maternal blood and develops a vascular network for the transport of nutrients to and waste products from the fetus across the syncytiotrophoblast to ensure fetal growth and development. Both processes depend on the ability of the primordial stem-cell cytotrophoblasts to take either the villous pathway where they remain in the fetal compartment and differentiate morphologically into the syncytiotrophoblast or the extravillous pathway where they proliferate, aggregate into cell columns of the anchoring villi, and invade the endometrial stroma (Fig. 6). 105 The syncytiotrophoblast covers the floating chorionic villi that become highly vascularized, whereas the extravillous cytotrophoblasts infiltrate the walls of the spiral arterioles to facilitate the process of placentation.
In the research study published in Molecular Psychiatry, scientists from the College of Utah and South Korea’s Ewha Womans University, Catholic College of Korea and Soonchunhyang University used MRI mind scans of 111 South Korean teenagers as well as 114 South Oriental adults to compare the brain damage dued to persistent methamphetamine usage in each of these age groups. Each group of study individuals was about divided in between meth consumers and also non-consumers. The scientists searched for changes in substantia grisea (the nerve cells that form the brain’s active communication networks) and white matter (the afferent neuron that offer assistance for noodle) in all of the individuals.