In answer to all your question-not long, at all. There is time, known as the 'WOW Moment', usually the next day-when the bandages come off, you open your eye, and...Wow! A plastic patch has to be worn overnight, for about a week, and there are eye drops, for a few weeks but, you honestly, won't mind a bit! Surgery on the second eye-they don't 'do' them together, is normally six-eight weeks later. I had this done, about seven years ago now, and only need reading glasses. Regular 'check-ups' are necessary but hey, you can see!
Corneal edema and cystoid macular edema are less serious but more common, and occur because of persistent swelling at the front of the eye in corneal edema or back of the eye in cystoid macular edema.  They are normally the result of excessive inflammation following surgery, and in both cases, patients may notice blurred, foggy vision. They normally improve with time and with application of anti-inflammatory drops. The risk of either occurring is around one in 100. It is unclear whether NSAIDs or corticosteroids are superior at reducing postoperative inflammation. 
I had Lasik surgery the summer of 2009 at age 45. I was considered a good candidate for the surgery. I had very good vision (20/15) for almost 2 years, but then started noticing changes. My regular eye doctor thought that I was simply suffering from dry eye. After about 8 months of treatment, the doctor could see cataracts forming. I just had cataract surgery on my left eye Feb 26, 2014 at age 50, only 2-1/2 years after noticing the first vision degradation. The cataract was rated 3+. This cataract caused blurring and multiple images, rather than cloudiness or discoloration. I also have a cataract forming in my right eye, though it isn't progressing as aggressively as the left eye did. I do not have any health issues such as diabetes, I never took steroids except for the eye drops after Lasik surgery, and I have never had any type of eye injury which would cause early cataracts. I believe that the Lasik surgery or follow-up eye drops caused me to develop early, aggressive cataracts.