Phytoecdysteroids in plants

Topping our who's who list of post-workout foods is chocolate milk , but not just any old chocolate milk, we're talking about the pre-formulated, protein-fortified, low-fat, great-tasting kind like Rockin' Refuel (also available in strawberry and vanilla, for the chocolate-averse gym rats). With 48 grams of carbs and 20 grams of whey protein, Rockin’ Refuel delivers the perfect ratio of carbs to protein, along with electrolytes and some other essential vitamins and minerals. Although making your own recovery drink is preferred by some guys, the convenience of having an all-in-one sports recovery drink handy after your workout simply can't be beat.

When purchasing spinach, look for leaves that have a vibrant, deep green color. Avoid any leaves that already look wilted or have wet, brown spots. Spinach is known to attract and hold bacteria somewhat easily, so wash it well before using it. It’s also best to buy organic spinach whenever possible, because conventionally grown spinach is one of the most pesticide-sprayed vegetable crops there is. According to The Environmental Working Group, most spinach contains multiple pesticides, some reports even showing it often has more contaminants than 320 other commonly eaten foods. ( 12 )

AB - Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) foliage is known to synthesize and accumulate insect molting hormones, predominantly in the form of 20- hydroxyecdysone (20E). We previously demonstrated that root 20E accumulation is increased following root damage. We designed two further experiments to address root responses to both mechanical and insect damage. In plants grown hydroponically, removal of 35% or less of the root mass did not result in changes in root 20E levels. However, removal of 70% of the root mass stimulated - and -fold increases in the root and shoot 20E concentrations, respectively. The effects of insect damage on soil-grown plants were investigated by infesting plant roots with black vine weevil (BVW: Otiorhynchus sulcatus) larvae and allowing them to feed for seven days. Decreases in root mass occurred in young plants; however, no changes were detected in mature plants. In all cases, root herbivory resulted in at least a -fold increase in root 20E concentrations. Our previous experiments implicated jasmonic acid and the analog methyl jasmonate (MJ) in signaling the damage-induced accumulation of root 20E levels. We investigated the activity of other phytohormones and growth regulators (GRs) on the 20E accumulation patterns of young plants as a means of examining the significance of jasmonates in the induction response. Hydroponic additions of MJ ( μM) and the synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; μM), resulted in significant increases in root 20E levels. At the concentrations tested, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), abscisic acid (ABA), and trans-zeatin (Z) had no effects on root 20E concentrations. However, both NAA (- μM) and Z ( μM) treatments caused increases in the root/shoot dry mass ratios, indicating shifts in resource allocation to the roots. Treatments involving ABA ( μM) and Z (- μM) caused significant increases in shoot 20E concentrations. No other hormone treatments altered shoot accumulation patterns. The mechanisms underlying the root 20E induction phenomena were investigated through the incorporation of [2-14C]mevalonic acid ([14C]MVA). Within one day, excised roots readily incorporated radioactivity into 20E from [14C]MVA. In intact plants, [14C]MVA absorbed by the roots was rapidly incorporated into root 20E pools following damage and MJ treatments. This implies that the wound-induced root 20E accumulation is the result of increased de novo 20E synthesis in the root.

Phytoecdysteroids in plants

phytoecdysteroids in plants

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