Formulations of topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, piroxicam, and indomethacin demonstrated significantly higher rates of clinical success (more participants with at least 50% pain relief) than matching topical placebo (moderate or high quality data ). Benzydamine did not. Three drug and formulation combinations had NNTs for clinical success below 4. For diclofenac, the Emulgel® formulation had the lowest NNT of (95% CI to ) in two studies using at least 50% pain intensity reduction as the outcome . Diclofenac plasters other than Flector® also had a low NNT of ( to ) based on good or excellent responses in some studies. Ketoprofen gel had an NNT of ( to ), from five studies in the 1980s, some with less well defined outcomes. Ibuprofen gel had an NNT of ( to ) from two studies with outcomes of marked improvement or complete remission. All other drug and formulation combinations had NNT values above 4, indicating lesser efficacy .
The recommendations in this guidance represent the view of NICE, arrived at after careful consideration of the evidence available. When exercising their judgement, health professionals are expected to take this guidance fully into account, alongside the individual needs, preferences and values of their patients. The application of the recommendations in this guidance is at the discretion of health professionals and their individual patients and do not override the responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or their carer or guardian.
NSAIDs may be grouped according to their preference for COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Those that favor COX-1 are more likely to cause gastrointestinal side effects. Those that favor COX-2 have a higher risk of cardiovascular effects but less gastrointestinal effects. Higher dosages of NSAIDs tend to result in more COX-2 enzyme inhibition (and more cardiovascular side effects), even in those NSAIDs traditionally seen as low risk (such as ibuprofen). NSAIDs with higher activity against COX-2 enzymes should be used with caution in people with cardiovascular disease or at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.