Non-clinical data revealed no major hazard for humans based on studies of repeated dose toxicity of caffeine. However, at high doses convulsions in rodents were induced. At therapeutic doses some behavioural changes in newborn rats were induced, most likely as a consequence of increased adenosine receptor expression that persisted into adulthood. Caffeine was shown to be devoid of mutagenic and oncogenic risk. Teratogenic potential and effects on reproductive performance observed in animals are not relevant to its indication in the preterm infant population.