Intralesional corticosteroids for alopecia areata

Epidemiology. Findings regarding prevalence rates depend on the methodology employed, the sample under study, how PD is defined, and how men are queried with ranges from % to % within specific populations. Using a population-based methodology in a . sample aged 18 years and older, Dibenedetti (2011) reported a prevalence rate of % for men who had been formally diagnosed with PD, a rate of % for men who had been diagnosed or treated for PD, and a rate of % for men who had been diagnosed or treated or had any symptom of PD. 12 Schwarzer (2001) conducted a community-based study among men in Cologne, Germany and reported a prevalence rate of % in men aged 31-78 years. 13 Another population-based study in Italian men reported a prevalence rate of % among men aged 50-69 years. 14 Among men older than age 40 years screened for prostate cancer in the ., a prevalence of % was reported. 15 Men older than 50 years screened for prostate cancer in Southern Brazil had a prevalence rate of %. 16 Rates may be higher among men who present with comorbidities. El-Sakka (2006) reported a prevalence rate of % among men who presented with ED. 17 Arafa (2007) reported a rate of % among men who were diabetic with ED. 18 Together, this group of studies suggests that prevalence rates historically have been under-estimated. The higher rates detected in more recent studies suggest a greater awareness of the disease and its symptoms.

Yang et al (2015) stated that peri-orbital microcystic lymphatic malformations (LM) can cause severe symptoms, such as blepharoptosis, amblyopia, chemosis, strabismus, diminished vision, and blindness.  In a retrospective study, these researchers evaluated the clinical outcome in peri-orbital microcystic LM patients with blepharoptosis who underwent surgical treatment combined with intralesional bleomycin injection.  A total of 9 patients diagnosed as peri-orbital microcystic LM with blepharoptosis were included in this study.  All of them underwent surgical treatment and bleomycin injection from January 2010 to January 2014.  The lesion was resected through the lower eyebrow and/or a coronal incision at the first stage, and levator resection was performed at the second stage.  Any persistent lesion or its recurrence was managed by intralesional bleomycin injection.  Blepharoptosis and visual obstruction were corrected in all patients.  Mean follow-up was months; 6 patients had recurrence during follow-up; and 2 patients who had partial eyelid closure after the second stage surgery recovered in 3 months.  Amblyopia, astigmatism, and strabismus were not improved after treatment.  All patients had excellent aesthetic improvement and corrected blepharoptosis.  The authors concluded that resection through a lower eyebrow and coronal incision and levator resection performed in 2 stages can quickly correct the visual impairment caused by peri-orbital microcystic LM with blepharoptosis.  They stated that intralesional bleomycin injection is a promising adjunctive therapy for residual or recurrent lesions after surgery.

We hypothesize that the fibroblast, or the myofibroblast, or both are the key cells responsible for keloid and hypertrophic scar formation. These cell types produce the bulk of extracellular matrix components during normal wound healing. In fact, experimental evidence suggests that hy­pertrophic scars and keloids result from excessive amounts of collagen and proteoglycan production or from lack of remodeling of these moie­ties.''-" We also hypothesize that wound tension is a major factor in the formation of both the hypertrophic scar and the keloid, which occurs sec­ondary to direct biochemical changes induced by this mechanical factor. Most likely these changes are a direct result of the effect of wound tension on the metabolism of the fibroblast or myofibroblast. Fibroblasts have been shown to increase cell proliferation in response to mechanical tension in Mechanical stretch alone has been shown to raise the number of myofibroblasts in mouse dermis in Presumably, mechanical ten­sion is also responsible for a positive balance in the collagen and proteo­glycan production-degradation cycle in the wound healing under exces­sive tension. We are currently studying the effects of mechanical tension on wound healing at the biochemical level. The cause-effect relationship between hypertrophic scar and keloid formation as well as other etiologic factors, such as the age and race of the patient, remain more highly spec­ulative and are not discussed here.

ELECTRODESICCATION AND CURETTAGE (ED&C) Scraping or burning-off skin growths (also known as electrodesiccation and curettage) can be used for less serious skin cancers, pre-cancers and benign growths. A local anesthetic is injected, and then the abnormal tissue is scraped off with a special tool. The area is then cauterized until bleeding stops. This may be repeated if the growth is cancerous. The wound will need to be dressed until it heals, and it usually leaves a small white mark. Learn more about Electrodesiccation and Curettage .

Intralesional corticosteroids for alopecia areata

intralesional corticosteroids for alopecia areata

ELECTRODESICCATION AND CURETTAGE (ED&C) Scraping or burning-off skin growths (also known as electrodesiccation and curettage) can be used for less serious skin cancers, pre-cancers and benign growths. A local anesthetic is injected, and then the abnormal tissue is scraped off with a special tool. The area is then cauterized until bleeding stops. This may be repeated if the growth is cancerous. The wound will need to be dressed until it heals, and it usually leaves a small white mark. Learn more about Electrodesiccation and Curettage .

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