Women - On the other hand, women often experience a "masculinization" effect from anabolic steroids, including the following:
This is where it all started. The oral form was originally developed back in 1956 by Dr. John Ziegler and Ciba labs. This was the first steroid used by American athletes and was the only steroid anyone in this country talked about until the late 1970’s, by which time it had earned the nickname, “the breakfast of champions;” a sly wink at 1971 Kurt Vonnegut satire about depravity in the modern age—that and the fact several pro-football clubs greeted their players each morning with breakfast and those little pink pills. Methandrostenolone is by far the most popular steroid used by athletes. Ciba labs discontinued the brand name Dianabol in USA during the 1990’s because the FDA decided the only people using this drug were athletes. Dianabol pictures:
Antigen testing , in most practices, has supplanted or supplemented microfilarial detection. Combining the microfilaria and adult antigen test is most useful in dogs receiving diethylcarbamazine or no preventative (as macrolides as for example ivermectin or moxidectin typically render the dog amicrofilaremic). Up to 1% of infected dogs are microfilaria-positive and antigen-negative.  Immunodiagnostics ( ELISA , lateral flow immunoassay , rapid immunomigration techniques) to detect heartworm antigen in the host's blood are now regularly used. The weakness of these tests is they only detect the antigens released from the adult female worm's reproductive tract , so produce negative results during the first five to eight months of infection.  The specificity of these tests is close to 100%, and the sensitivity is more than 80%.  A recent study demonstrated a sensitivity of only 64% for infections of only one female worm, but improved with increasing female worm burden (85%, 88%, and 89% for two, three, and four female worms, respectively). Specificity in this study was 97%.  False-negative test results can be due to low worm counts, immature infections, and all-male infections.