Genetic factors influence the susceptibility for advanced ALD. Monozygotic twins have a higher concordance rate for alcohol-related cirrhosis than dizygotic twins (23). Genetic factors may influence susceptibility to alcohol consumption or predisposition to development of ALD among those with AUD. Genes influencing the susceptibility for alcoholism include modifiers of neurotransmission such as γ-amino butyric acid and modifiers of alcohol metabolism such as alcoholic dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes (24). The polymorphisms in these genes may be involved in an individual’s susceptibility to alcoholism, with wide allelic variation between different ethnic groups, but their role in the progression of ALD remains controversial. The second group of genes modifies the natural history of ALD through different mechanisms. Small candidate gene studies initially suggested a role for polymorphisms in genes encoding inflammatory mediators, endotoxin response and oxidative stress. However, larger studies including a recent genome-wide association study revealed that patatinlike phospholipase domain containing protein 3, may be the main genetic determinant of risk for and severity of ALD (25, 26). Phospholipase domain containing protein 3 is closely related with lipid metabolism and is also a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and HCC (26). The allele that negatively impacts disease progression (., rs738409) is more frequent within the Hispanic population, which is particularly sensitive to fatty liver diseases (25).
Macroscopically, the liver is initially enlarged, but with the progression of the disease, it becomes smaller. Its surface is irregular, the consistency is firm, and the color is often yellow (if associated with steatosis ). Depending on the size of the nodules, there are three macroscopic types: micronodular, macronodular, and mixed cirrhosis. In the micronodular form (Laennec's cirrhosis or portal cirrhosis), regenerating nodules are under 3 mm. In macronodular cirrhosis (post-necrotic cirrhosis), the nodules are larger than 3 mm. Mixed cirrhosis consists of nodules of different sizes.
Surgical – For many PSS cases surgery is the treatment of choice. The abnormal vessel that is shunting blood around the liver is identified and closed (ligated) to minimize blood flowing through it. When the abnormal blood vessel is ligated blood will now flow through the liver instead of around it. This is readily accomplished for solitary extrahepatic shunts. Intrahepatic shunts can be more difficult
to identify and ligate. Post surgical monitoring is important. If the pressure within the liver becomes too high due to the increased blood flow through the liver then the ligation on the shunting vessel(s) must be reduced or removed.