Biosynthetic pathways of brassinolide from campesterol was demonstrated by studies using cultured Catharanthus roseus cells. Brassinolide is biosynthesized through two pathways, early C6-oxidation pathway and late C6-oxidation pathway, branching off at the conversion of campestanol. Recent characterization of brassinosteroid-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis, pea and tomato confirmed that the pathways operate in wide variety of plant species. Biochemical and molecular genetic studies of the mutants are providing important knowledge on genes and enzymes involved in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. The established biosynthetic pathways of brassinosteroids and the regulation of biosynthesis including up-to-date findings are introduced in this review.
BR might reveal to have a prominent interest in the role of horticultural crops. Based on extensive research BR has the ability to improve the quantity and quality of horticultural crops and protect plants against many stresses that can be present in the local environment.   With the many advances in technology dealing with the synthesis of more stable synthetic analogues and the genetic manipulation of cellular BR activity, using BR in the production of horticultural crops has become a more practical and hopeful strategy for improving crop yields and success.